Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research: a researcher is the one who conducts this research. The results obtained from a small group through scientific studies are socialised, and new information is revealed with respect to diagnosis, treatment and reliability of applications. The purpose of this review is to provide information about the definition, classification and methodology of scientific research.
Most researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. To put it bluntly, one's research is only as good as one's proposal. An ill-conceived proposal dooms the project even if it somehow gets through the final stage. A high quality proposal, on the other hand, not only promises success for the research project, but also impresses your reviewers and funders about your potential as a researcher.
Are schools actually different in their influence on students? How large are these differences? Does it matter which educational outcome is considered? In other words, do we find different answers with regard to achievement in different subject areas, noncognitive results such as well-being, subsequent career choices, chances of success in higher education, …? What is the proper procedure to measure school effects? Which factors account for school effectiveness and how can they be explained theoretically?