Bologna Process at KNU

To develop the education process at Knowledge University and upon the recommendation of the KRG ministry of higher education, Knowledge University has decided to change from Course System into Bologna Process. This is also consistent with the recent global development in higher education and facilitates student’s mobility. The university proposal to transform to Bologna process was approved by the ministry of higher education for the academic year 2020 – 2021 and the new academic year for first semester students started with the new system.

The university believes that Bologna Process is consistent with the global development of higher education and it’s a way to adapt to the market changes. The Bologna process is believed to be a gateway toward a more practical education and know-how learning process. Knowledge University also tries to build a bridge between university and market and pursue the employability of its graduates.

The vision of Knowledge University in applying the Bologna Process is to become a top university in Kurdistan Region in terms of alumni employability, university-business cooperation, entrepreneurship, and competency building.

  • To build students competencies and enhance employability of KNU alumni.
  • To make students the center of education and make them responsible for their education.
  • To establish a bridge and cooperation between the university and the labor market.

The objectives of the Bologna process at Knowledge University is the following:

  • Applying student-centered learning and getting rid of the traditional teacher center learning.
  • Students become the center of education in our university.
  • Expanding learning environment and quality of education.
  • Strengthening the bridge between university and the workplace.
  • Building trust and restoring love to education and university.
  • Developing student’s competencies, skills, confidence, and self-esteem.
  • Measuring students’ performance and competencies through the ECTS system.
  • Making education fun and practical for students to enjoy the learning process and learn through experience and teamwork.
  • Designing a new curriculum to meet market needs and enhance employment opportunities for our Alumni.
  • More transparency and justice in students’ assessment through the ECTS system.

  • lifelong learning;
  • Graduate employability;
  • student-centered learning.
  • Learning by doing;
  • education, research, and innovation;
  • International cooperation and students mobility;
  • multidimensional transparency tools

The university following the MOHE-KRG recommendations equalized 1 ECTS to 27 workload hours. Students are required to complete 30 ECTS which is equivalent to 810 workload hours per semester, and 1620 w/h per academic year. Apart from taking the required ECTS, students are also required to fulfill module requirements to pass the semester.

summative and formative assessments will be applied. Students should go through End-of-term or midterm exams as part of summative assessment. However, formative assessment is an important part of the assessment that helps to discover what students know during the process of learning (Ex. quiz, focus group, case study analysis, group presentation, oral presentation, video presentation, assignment, student’s portfolio, learning diary...etc.)

For the first semester of the 2020 -2021 academic year, the university centralized summative assessment into 20% for the midterm exam, and 40% for the final exam. The rest of the marks is devoted to formative assessment in which different tools have been used. The following is the sample of assessment criteria:

Module Assessment

Types of Activity

Weight (Marks)

Week Due




Oral examination






Class activity



Projects or Report



Group Presentation



Midterm Exam



Final Exam




100% (100 Marks)



Percentage to Grade Chart

Percentage Range


90 % - 100%


79% - 89%

Very Good

70% - 78%


60% - 69%


50% - 59%


Below 49%


In accordance with the MOHE-KRG guidelines, students that transfer from a university applying Bologna Process into another university that applies the same system do not require equalization. However, student mobility does not happen between Knowledge University and universities that do not apply the Bologna Process as the core principle of the system.

When a student transfers from the university that applies Bologna Process to Knowledge University, no equalization is needed unless students didn’t take pre-requisite modules and believed to affect his/her level of performance.

  • The student needs to obtain 50% for each module to pass.
  • Students’ attendance in the final exam is not optional, but they need to conduct the final exam, even if they get 50% in the formative assessment and midterm exam. In the contrary, the student can not complete the workload hours.
  • The assessment to be done for all credits that students accumulate during the semester and to be measured with the learning outcome. If the student does not fulfill the module requirement, the required credit should be taken to complete the requirement, then he/she can pass the module. Students will not be able to achieve designed learning outcomes without completing module requirements.
  • Module leaders have the autonomy to stop students to attend the final exam, if he/she found that the student does not fulfill module requirement or the learning outcome is not achieved.
  • Students will have 4 chances to reset the exam and pass the module.
  • Students should pass the pre-requisite module to take the related module.
  • The number of ECTS students take should not exceed 30 ECTS per semester and the pre-requisite modules should be taken before taking core or elective modules.
  • The university decided to open an intensive summer semester if the adequate number of students is available to help them fulfill module requirements.
  • Students should not limit 6 academic years to obtain a bachelor's degree.
  • The university applies all other regulations issued by the Ministry of Higher Education in relation to the implementation of the Bologna Process.